In India, one in 10 couple are infertile. According to the centres for disease control, nearly about 30% of the time it is contributed by men, 30% of the time it is linked with female, and in the remaining cases the infertility is due to combination of factors from both the partners. For approximately, 20% of the couples, the cause is unknown.
Female reproductive system is much more complex and plays an important role in child-bearing than men, as they are responsible for producing eggs, transporting the embryo to the uterus through the fallopian tube and nurturing the embryo in the uterus.
Age affecting fertility :
Women are born with a predetermined number of eggs and cannot produce new ones. Thus, as the reproductive years progresses, the number and the quality of the egg diminishes. As a result of it, after the age of 30, the chances of having a baby decreases by 3%-5% every year and this reduction is much more noted after the age of 40.
Causes of Female Infertility :
Failure to ovulate : Ovulatory disorders are one of the most common cause and accounts for 30% of women’s infertility. Majority of the times, it is due to unsynchronized hormonal changes.
Damage to fallopian tubes Tubal disease affects approximately 25% of infertile couple, usually ranging from mild adhesions to complete tubal blockage.
Uterine factor : Atleast 10% of all cases of female infertility are caused by an abnormal uterus. Conditions such as fibroid, polyps, and adenomyosis may lead to obstruction of the uterus and Fallopian tubes. Congenital abnormalities, such as septate uterus, may lead to recurrent miscarriages or inability to conceive.
Cervical causes : Approximately 3%of women may have a cervical condition in which the sperm cannot pass through the cervical canal. Whether due to abnormal mucus production or a prior cervical surgical procedure.
Endometriosis : Approximately 10% of infertile couples are affected by endometriosis. For women with endometriosis, the monthly fecundity (chance of getting pregnant) diminishes by 12 to 36%.