A surrogacy arrangement is one where one woman(the surrogate mother) agrees to bear a child for a married couple (the intended parents).
Surrogacy can be used for women who are unable to carry a baby themselves. This may be due to hysterectomy, pelvic disorder, or where a pregnancy would be a serious risk to health. Surrogacy can also provide a solution for women who suffer repeated miscarriage or late pregnancy loss.
Surrogacy involves the transfer of embryos created using the eggs and sperms of couple undergoing treatment, into the womb of another woman, the "Surrogate", and is carried out when for some reason a woman cannot carry a child herself.
Types of surrogacy
The fertilisation of the egg may take place in a number of ways, each of which has implications for the genetic relationship of the resulting child with the surrogate and the future parents. There are two main types of surrogacy: gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy.
1) Traditional surrogacy
Traditional surrogacy (also known as partial, genetic, or straight surrogacy) involves natural or artificial insemination of a surrogate. If the intended father's sperm is used in the insemination, then the resulting child is genetically related to the intended father and genetically related to the surrogate. If donor sperm is used, the resulting child is not genetically related to either intended parent but is genetically related to the surrogate.
In some cases, an insemination may be performed privately by the parties without the intervention of a doctor or physician. In some jurisdictions, the 'commissioning parents' using donor sperms need to go through an adoption process in order to have legal rights in respect to the resulting child. Many fertility centers which provide for surrogacy assist the parties through the process.
2) Gestational surrogacy
Gestational surrogacy (also known as host or full surrogacy) was first achieved in April 1986.It takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational carrier. Gestational surrogacy may take a number of forms, but in each form the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate: